Insomnia - Scholarpedia
From Scholarpedia
Charles M. Morin and Geneviève Belleville (2008), Scholarpedia, 3(4):3314. revision #41725 [link to/cite this article]

Curator: Dr. Charles M. Morin, Laval University, Quebec, CANADA
Curator: Dr. Geneviève Belleville, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, CANADA

Insomnia entails a spectrum of complaints reflecting dissatisfaction with the quality, duration, or continuity of sleep. These complaints may involve problems with falling asleep initially at bedtime (initial insomnia), waking up in the middle of the night and having difficulty going back to sleep (middle insomnia), waking up too early in the morning with an inability to sleep until planned rise time (late insomnia), or a perception of non restorative sleep. Insomnia may be transient, episodic, or persistent over time (Morin & Espie, 2003). Approximately one third of the adult population reports insomnia symptoms, whereas about 10% suffer from an insomnia disorder (Ohayon, 2002).

Along with subjective complaints of poor sleep, individuals with insomnia are often distressed about their sleep and also report significant fatigue and impairments of their daytime functioning. Common sleep-loss related daytime problems include difficulties with attention, concentration, memory, and completion of tasks, and negative mood. Chronic insomnia is also associated with reduced quality of life, decreased productivity, increased absenteeism from work, and increased risk for depression.

* 1 Etiology/Pathophysiology
o 1.1 Primary vs. coexisting insomnia
o 1.2 The biological basis of insomnia
o 1.3 The role of psychological factors and life events
o 1.4 Spielman’s 3P Model of Insomnia
* 2 Treatment options
o 2.1 Psychological and behavioral interventions
o 2.2 Prescribed medications
o 2.3 Herbal and Dietary Supplements
* 3 References
* 4 Suggested websites
* 5 See also
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